Treatment Guidelines

Both NCCN and AUA include enzalutamide (XTANDI) as an option for certain patients with mCSPC, nmCRPC, and mCRPC based on high-level evidence1,2

National Comprehensive Cancer Network® (NCCN®) Guidelines

Enzalutamide (XTANDI) is the first and only novel hormone therapy recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network® (NCCN®) as a Category 1 treatment option* for certain patients with mCSPC, nmCRPC, and mCRPC1

Metastatic CSPC

NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®) recommend enzalutamide (XTANDI) with androgen deprivation therapy as a Category 1 treatment option* for patients with mCSPC

Nonmetastatic CRPC

NCCN Guidelines® recommend enzalutamide (XTANDI) with continued androgen deprivation therapy as a Category 1 treatment option* for patients with nmCRPC when PSADT is 10 months

Metastatic CRPC

NCCN Guidelines recommend enzalutamide (XTANDI) with continued androgen deprivation therapy as a Category 1 first-line treatment option* for patients with mCRPC

*A Category 1 recommendation is based on high-level evidence and indicates uniform NCCN consensus that the intervention is appropriate.1

†For patients with mCRPC and no prior docetaxel, and no prior novel hormone therapy.1

American Urological Association Recommendation (AUA)

Enzalutamide (XTANDI) is the first novel hormone therapy recommended with a Strong Recommendation* by the American Urological Association (AUA) in mCSPC, nmCRPC, and mCRPC2

Metastatic CSPC

Strong Recommendation Based on Evidence Level Grade A

For patients with mCSPC in combination with continued androgen deprivation therapy

Nonmetastatic CRPC

Strong Recommendation Based on Evidence Level Grade A

For patients with nmCRPC on continued androgen deprivation therapy at high risk for developing metastatic disease (PSADT  10 months)

Metastatic CRPC

Strong Recommendation Based on Evidence Level Grade A

For newly diagnosed mCRPC patients on continued androgen deprivation therapy

mCRPC, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; nmCRPC, nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; PSADT, prostate-specific antigen doubling time.

*Strong Recommendations are directive statements that an action should (benefits outweigh risks/burdens) or should not (risks/burdens outweigh benefits) be undertaken because net benefit or net harm is substantial.2

†A Grade A rating means the AUA is very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect.2

American Society of Clinical Oncology Guidelines Recommendation

American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)3

Metastatic CRPC

Strong evidence supports the ASCO Guidelines recommendation of enzalutamide (XTANDI) in addition to androgen deprivation therapy as a therapeutic option in mCRPC to improve survival and to provide a favorable benefit-risk profile

Please see NCCN (nccn.org), AUA (auanet.org), and ASCO (asco.org) guidelines for full recommendations

Select Safety Information

Hypersensitivity reactions, including edema of the face (0.5%), tongue (0.1%), or lip (0.1%) have been observed with XTANDI in seven randomized clinical trials. Pharyngeal edema has been reported in post-marketing cases. Advise patients who experience any symptoms of hypersensitivity to temporarily discontinue XTANDI and promptly seek medical care. Permanently discontinue XTANDI for serious hypersensitivity reactions.

References: 1. Referenced with permission from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®) for Prostate Cancer V3.2022. © National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2022. All rights reserved. Accessed 01-18-2022. The NCCN Guidelines® and illustrations herein may not be reproduced in any form for any purpose without the express written permission of NCCN. To view the most recent and complete version of the guideline, go online to NCCN.org. NCCN makes no warranties of any kind whatsoever regarding their content, use or application and disclaims any responsibility for their application or use in any way. 2. American Urological Association. Advanced prostate cancer: AUA/ASTRO/SUO guideline (08-2020). https://www.auanet.org/guidelines/advanced-prostate-cancer. Accessed 08-06-2021. 3. Basch E, Loblaw DA, Oliver TK, et al. Systemic therapy in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology and Cancer Care Ontario clinical practice guideline. J Clin Oncol 2014;32(30):3436-48.

Important Safety Information

Warnings and Precautions

Seizure occurred in 0.5% of patients receiving XTANDI in seven randomized clinical trials. In a study of patients with predisposing factors for seizure, 2.2% of XTANDI-treated patients experienced a seizure. It is unknown whether anti-epileptic medications will prevent seizures with XTANDI. Patients in the study had one or more of the following predisposing factors: use of medications that may lower the seizure threshold, history of traumatic brain or head injury, history of cerebrovascular accident or transient ischemic attack, and Alzheimer’s disease, meningioma, or leptomeningeal disease from prostate cancer, unexplained loss of consciousness within the last 12 months, history of seizure, presence of a space occupying lesion of the brain, history of arteriovenous malformation, or history of brain infection. Advise patients of the risk of developing a seizure while taking XTANDI and of engaging in any activity where sudden loss of consciousness could cause serious harm to themselves or others. Permanently discontinue XTANDI in patients who develop a seizure during treatment.

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) There have been reports of PRES in patients receiving XTANDI. PRES is a neurological disorder that can present with rapidly evolving symptoms including seizure, headache, lethargy, confusion, blindness, and other visual and neurological disturbances, with or without associated hypertension. A diagnosis of PRES requires confirmation by brain imaging, preferably MRI. Discontinue XTANDI in patients who develop PRES.

Hypersensitivity reactions, including edema of the face (0.5%), tongue (0.1%), or lip (0.1%) have been observed with XTANDI in seven randomized clinical trials. Pharyngeal edema has been reported in post-marketing cases. Advise patients who experience any symptoms of hypersensitivity to temporarily discontinue XTANDI and promptly seek medical care. Permanently discontinue XTANDI for serious hypersensitivity reactions.

Ischemic Heart Disease In the combined data of four randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies, ischemic heart disease occurred more commonly in patients on the XTANDI arm compared to patients on the placebo arm (2.9% vs 1.3%). Grade 3-4 ischemic events occurred in 1.4% of patients on XTANDI versus 0.7% on placebo. Ischemic events led to death in 0.4% of patients on XTANDI compared to 0.1% on placebo. Monitor for signs and symptoms of ischemic heart disease. Optimize management of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia. Discontinue XTANDI for Grade 3-4 ischemic heart disease.

Falls and Fractures occurred in patients receiving XTANDI. Evaluate patients for fracture and fall risk. Monitor and manage patients at risk for fractures according to established treatment guidelines and consider use of bone-targeted agents. In the combined data of four randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies, falls occurred in 11% of patients treated with XTANDI compared to 4% of patients treated with placebo. Fractures occurred in 10% of patients treated with XTANDI and in 4% of patients treated with placebo.

Embryo-Fetal Toxicity The safety and efficacy of XTANDI have not been established in females. XTANDI can cause fetal harm and loss of pregnancy when administered to a pregnant female. Advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with XTANDI and for 3 months after the last dose of XTANDI.

Adverse Reactions (ARs)

In the data from the four randomized placebo-controlled trials, the most common ARs ( 10%) that occurred more frequently ( 2% over placebo) in XTANDI-treated patients were asthenia/fatigue, back pain, hot flush, constipation, arthralgia, decreased appetite, diarrhea, and hypertension. In the bicalutamide-controlled study, the most common ARs ( 10%) reported in XTANDI-treated patients were asthenia/fatigue, back pain, musculoskeletal pain, hot flush, hypertension, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, upper respiratory tract infection, and weight loss.

In AFFIRM, the placebo-controlled study of metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) patients who previously received docetaxel, Grade 3 and higher ARs were reported among 47% of XTANDI-treated patients. Discontinuations due to adverse events (AEs) were reported for 16% of XTANDI-treated patients. In PREVAIL, the placebo-controlled study of chemotherapy-naive mCRPC patients, Grade 3-4 ARs were reported in 44% of XTANDI patients and 37% of placebo patients. Discontinuations due to AEs were reported for 6% of XTANDI-treated patients. In TERRAIN, the bicalutamide-controlled study of chemotherapy-naive mCRPC patients, Grade 3-4 ARs were reported in 39% of XTANDI patients and 38% of bicalutamide patients. Discontinuations with an AE as the primary reason were reported for 8% of XTANDI patients and 6% of bicalutamide patients.

In PROSPER, the placebo-controlled study of non-metastatic CRPC (nmCRPC) patients, Grade 3 or higher ARs were reported in 31% of XTANDI patients and 23% of placebo patients. Discontinuations with an AE as the primary reason were reported for 9% of XTANDI patients and 6% of placebo patients.

In ARCHES, the placebo-controlled study of metastatic CSPC (mCSPC) patients, Grade 3 or higher AEs were reported in 24% of XTANDI-treated patients. Permanent discontinuation due to AEs as the primary reason was reported in 5% of XTANDI patients and 4% of placebo patients.

Lab Abnormalities: Lab abnormalities that occurred in 5% of patients, and more frequently (> 2%) in the XTANDI arm compared to placebo in the pooled, randomized, placebo-controlled studies are neutrophil count decreased, white blood cell decreased, hyperglycemia, hypermagnesemia, hyponatremia, and hypercalcemia.

Hypertension: In the combined data from four randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials, hypertension was reported in 12% of XTANDI patients and 5% of placebo patients. Hypertension led to study discontinuation in < 1% of patients in each arm.

Drug Interactions

Effect of Other Drugs on XTANDI Avoid coadministration with strong CYP2C8 inhibitors. If coadministration cannot be avoided, reduce the dosage of XTANDI.

Avoid coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inducers. If coadministration cannot be avoided, increase the dosage of XTANDI.

Effect of XTANDI on Other Drugs Avoid coadministration with certain CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 substrates for which minimal decrease in concentration may lead to therapeutic failure of the substrate. If coadministration cannot be avoided, increase the dosage of these substrates in accordance with their Prescribing Information. In cases where active metabolites are formed, there may be increased exposure to the active metabolites.

Indications

XTANDI (enzalutamide) is indicated for the treatment of patients with:

  • castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)
  • metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC)

Please see Full Prescribing Information.

Important Safety Information

Warnings and Precautions

Seizure occurred in 0.5% of patients receiving XTANDI in seven randomized clinical trials. In a study of patients with predisposing factors for seizure, 2.2% of XTANDI-treated patients experienced a seizure. It is unknown whether anti-epileptic medications will prevent seizures with XTANDI. Patients in the study had one or more of the following predisposing factors: use of medications that may lower the seizure threshold, history of traumatic brain or head injury, history of cerebrovascular accident or transient ischemic attack, and Alzheimer’s disease, meningioma, or leptomeningeal disease from prostate cancer, unexplained loss of consciousness within the last 12 months, history of seizure, presence of a space occupying lesion of the brain, history of arteriovenous malformation, or history of brain infection. Advise patients of the risk of developing a seizure while taking XTANDI and of engaging in any activity where sudden loss of consciousness could cause serious harm to themselves or others. Permanently discontinue XTANDI in patients who develop a seizure during treatment.

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) There have been reports of PRES in patients receiving XTANDI. PRES is a neurological disorder that can present with rapidly evolving symptoms including seizure, headache, lethargy, confusion, blindness, and other visual and neurological disturbances, with or without associated hypertension. A diagnosis of PRES requires confirmation by brain imaging, preferably MRI. Discontinue XTANDI in patients who develop PRES.

Hypersensitivity reactions, including edema of the face (0.5%), tongue (0.1%), or lip (0.1%) have been observed with XTANDI in seven randomized clinical trials. Pharyngeal edema has been reported in post-marketing cases. Advise patients who experience any symptoms of hypersensitivity to temporarily discontinue XTANDI and promptly seek medical care. Permanently discontinue XTANDI for serious hypersensitivity reactions.

Ischemic Heart Disease In the combined data of four randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies, ischemic heart disease occurred more commonly in patients on the XTANDI arm compared to patients on the placebo arm (2.9% vs 1.3%). Grade 3-4 ischemic events occurred in 1.4% of patients on XTANDI versus 0.7% on placebo. Ischemic events led to death in 0.4% of patients on XTANDI compared to 0.1% on placebo. Monitor for signs and symptoms of ischemic heart disease. Optimize management of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia. Discontinue XTANDI for Grade 3-4 ischemic heart disease.

Falls and Fractures occurred in patients receiving XTANDI. Evaluate patients for fracture and fall risk. Monitor and manage patients at risk for fractures according to established treatment guidelines and consider use of bone-targeted agents. In the combined data of four randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies, falls occurred in 11% of patients treated with XTANDI compared to 4% of patients treated with placebo. Fractures occurred in 10% of patients treated with XTANDI and in 4% of patients treated with placebo.

Embryo-Fetal Toxicity The safety and efficacy of XTANDI have not been established in females. XTANDI can cause fetal harm and loss of pregnancy when administered to a pregnant female. Advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with XTANDI and for 3 months after the last dose of XTANDI.

Adverse Reactions (ARs)

In the data from the four randomized placebo-controlled trials, the most common ARs ( 10%) that occurred more frequently ( 2% over placebo) in XTANDI-treated patients were asthenia/fatigue, back pain, hot flush, constipation, arthralgia, decreased appetite, diarrhea, and hypertension. In the bicalutamide-controlled study, the most common ARs ( 10%) reported in XTANDI-treated patients were asthenia/fatigue, back pain, musculoskeletal pain, hot flush, hypertension, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, upper respiratory tract infection, and weight loss.

In AFFIRM, the placebo-controlled study of metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) patients who previously received docetaxel, Grade 3 and higher ARs were reported among 47% of XTANDI-treated patients. Discontinuations due to adverse events (AEs) were reported for 16% of XTANDI-treated patients. In PREVAIL, the placebo-controlled study of chemotherapy-naive mCRPC patients, Grade 3-4 ARs were reported in 44% of XTANDI patients and 37% of placebo patients. Discontinuations due to AEs were reported for 6% of XTANDI-treated patients. In TERRAIN, the bicalutamide-controlled study of chemotherapy-naive mCRPC patients, Grade 3-4 ARs were reported in 39% of XTANDI patients and 38% of bicalutamide patients. Discontinuations with an AE as the primary reason were reported for 8% of XTANDI patients and 6% of bicalutamide patients.

In PROSPER, the placebo-controlled study of non-metastatic CRPC (nmCRPC) patients, Grade 3 or higher ARs were reported in 31% of XTANDI patients and 23% of placebo patients. Discontinuations with an AE as the primary reason were reported for 9% of XTANDI patients and 6% of placebo patients.

In ARCHES, the placebo-controlled study of metastatic CSPC (mCSPC) patients, Grade 3 or higher AEs were reported in 24% of XTANDI-treated patients. Permanent discontinuation due to AEs as the primary reason was reported in 5% of XTANDI patients and 4% of placebo patients.

Lab Abnormalities: Lab abnormalities that occurred in 5% of patients, and more frequently (> 2%) in the XTANDI arm compared to placebo in the pooled, randomized, placebo-controlled studies are neutrophil count decreased, white blood cell decreased, hyperglycemia, hypermagnesemia, hyponatremia, and hypercalcemia.

Hypertension: In the combined data from four randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials, hypertension was reported in 12% of XTANDI patients and 5% of placebo patients. Hypertension led to study discontinuation in < 1% of patients in each arm.

Drug Interactions

Effect of Other Drugs on XTANDI Avoid coadministration with strong CYP2C8 inhibitors. If coadministration cannot be avoided, reduce the dosage of XTANDI.

Avoid coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inducers. If coadministration cannot be avoided, increase the dosage of XTANDI.

Effect of XTANDI on Other Drugs Avoid coadministration with certain CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 substrates for which minimal decrease in concentration may lead to therapeutic failure of the substrate. If coadministration cannot be avoided, increase the dosage of these substrates in accordance with their Prescribing Information. In cases where active metabolites are formed, there may be increased exposure to the active metabolites.

Indications

XTANDI (enzalutamide) is indicated for the treatment of patients with:

  • castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)
  • metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC)

Please see Full Prescribing Information.